Saturday, December 12, 2009

Don't Blame Cows for Climate Change

Global warming (GW) is well proven complex of climate changes, which manifests mainly by increase of area of deserts and by glacier melting in latest 50 - 70 years.

Because thermal capacity of oceanic water is at least 5.000x higher, then this one of atmosphere, global mean temperature of atmosphere is much less relevant, then the global mean temperature of ocean.  And this temperature is still raising in accordance to increase of carbon dioxide concentration, despite the weak slow down of warming of atmosphere in recent decade.

Other phenomena, like increase of global temperature of atmosphere aren't so relevant for GW, because they undergo El-Nina / El-Nino cycle and solar cycle due the wobble of center of mass in Sun-Jupiter system (because mean solar cycle is faster then Jupiter period, it's probable, some other planets are affecting it, too). The center of mass controls the direction of global current of plasma beneath surface of Sun, which affects the frequency of sun spots (i.e. magnetic bubbles in plasma, raising to surface) and solar eruptions. The charged particles of solar wind penetrating the atmosphere of Earth are serving like condensation nuclei of fog and snow and they're making Earth surface more reflective.

The effect of ocean heating is not so straightforward. In general, it increases the number of convective cells in our atmosphere and frequency of their switching in similar way, like during heating of water in open vessel. Note that this change increases continental character of the weather, so that above continents the global warming may even lead to temperature records on both sides of temperature scale.
At the moment, when convective circulation switches from horizontal to vertical, an ice age period may occur, because Earth becomes intensively cooled. This is forced by hysteresis, because snow-white surface of Earth becomes more reflective at the same time. Just after cooling of oceans (which takes some time due their thermal capacity) the warm period is restored. Here are some indicia, the start of ice age can be very fast (compare the disaster movie Day after tomorrow) and period of fast paced global warming had preceded this event in younger dryas period, so maybe we are facing ice age soon.

Concerning the hypothesis of man made global warming, it's proven statistically, people are making weather warmer and drier on per week basis (1, 2), so no further evidence is necessary - we can just extrapolate these weekend fluctuations to decades of years.  During last warming periods the rise of carbon dioxide followed warming with delay of many decades with compare to present situation - so we can see this argument of many skeptics rather as another evidence for man-made origin of global warming. In addition, we can consider for example September 11, 2001 climate impact study. Measurements showed that without contrails, the local diurnal temperature range (difference of day and night temperatures) was about 1 degree Celsius higher than immediately before.

In my opinion, human activity started irreversible process, which couldn't be reversed so easily due the hysteresis described above. Nevertheless, we should save money from carbon dioxide taxes for faster research of alternative energy sources to replace fossil fuel as soon, as possible. This would be useful with respect to both prevention of ice age period, both prevention of another rise of carbon dioxide concentration. Carbon dioxide dissolves the shells of coral and plankton, thus destroys the fishing grounds and diversity of biosphere.

But the main risk of fossil fuel depletion is the global nuclear war for the rest of their sources. It's generally ignored, the reason of the recent oil & food price crisis was always lost USA war. These wars are very expensive and at the case of global nuclear conflict the things would get even way, way worse.

Concerning the rise of carbon dioxide, assigned to farming of poor countries, often neglected point is, many animals are able to collect proteins from life environment more efficiently, then the agricultural plants by using of solar radiation, because they can consume even the plants growing in wild, which people cannot. Which is the reason, why people in rain forests, deserts or arctic areas are feeded by meat preferably - the farming of moose is apparently more economical and therefore ecological(!) there, then the growing of plants.

For example, for production of rice it's required 2552 m³ of water/ ton rice, whereas for production of one ton of poultry 3809 m³ of water its required. Therefore the consumption of poultry may sound like ineffective waste of water for someone - but the content of proteins in rice is ten times lower, then in chicken meat! This explains, why people from deserts in Chad or Mongolia are living from pasturage, instead of agriculture. I even suspect, farming is more ecological then the agriculture as a whole, providing it doesn't use agricultural products (which usually does). Methane released by cows on pastures is negligible with compare to amount of methane, released by annual decomposition of plants without cows.

"Those who do not think about the future, do not deserve to have one."

AWT and cyclic evolution

This post is an reaction to recent study of thousands of species of plants and animals, which suggests, that new species may arise from rare events instead of through an accumulation of small changes made in response to changes in the environment. This is basically an emergent mechanism of AWT, so we can find many analogies of this finding in both social, both physical systems.

It's well known, human society is evolving "in circles", too. Many human inventions (Antikythera machine and gear mechanism), theories (plenum or Aether theory) or social arrangement (the constitution and voting systems) were forgotten and reinvented and subsequentially abandoned later again. We can see it as an analogy with spreading of energy in particle system, for example in ripples at water surface, which transforms gradually from longitudinal (Brownian noise) into transversal (capillary waves) and back into longitudinal (gravity waves) again.

A dual model consist in nested particle condensation: the effects of tiny density fluctuations are cumulating in emergent way, until it transforms into new homogeneous phase, in which density of fluctuations increases gradually until it forms nearly homogeneous phase in which... etc... Note, that we can observe a dark matter or supersymmetry phenomena here: the chaotic portion of quantitative models can ofter serve for formulation of new qualitative models and vice versa in simmilar way, like electric field transforms into magnetic one and back again during light wave spreading through vacuum.
This transform corresponds incident structure of Leaky Quantum Gravity (LQG) theory related to Möbius transform, which is isomorphic to restricted Lorentz group - so if Universe or black hole appears like doughnut, it becomes broken in symmetry (i.e. sliced) in recursive way of Möbius strip of Klein bottle. We can met with this geometry in Möbius strip structure of electron or inside of atom nuclei in structure of hadrons (see the previous post). In archetypal and sacred geometry we can met with this concept in Ouroboros archetype (based supposedly on Cordylus giganteus scink observations).

For example, mainstream physics is now in the phase, when the number of various theories developed in formal models in rather ad-hoced way increased above critical level, so that new meta-theories started to emerge. These meta-theories are now in their protoscience state like vague density fluctuations forming inside of dense gas - but we shouldn't throw the baby out with the bath water too soon, because the formal approach apparently reached its limits. We can call it an informational singularity, but I'd prefer rather gradualistic view of this process, in which phase-shifted boundaries of both formal, both non-formal approaches are fuzzy and they traveling together in duality like zone of crystallization through block universe (1, 2), or - even better - like the light wave spreading through vacuum.

The model of EM wave spreading is consistent with Red Queen Theory of co-evolution, based on constant evolutionary arms race between competing species. For example the high number of insects or deep sea species can be explained by adaptation to predators or parasites, which are specialized to its prey, where we can find many examples of co-evolution. During this genotypes oscillate over time in waves phase-shifted by their half-period, as if they were "running" in circles and informational event horizons are formed in accordance of paleobiological theory of punctuated equilibrium. It means, from local perspective we can see certain steps in gradualist evolution, which corresponds nested phase transforms in AWT. 
This model has its analogies in social systems, too. Frozen plasticity theory (article in Czech), which is based on game theory and selfish gene model considers, only portion of population can evolve freely, after certain time it becomes unable of further evolution and after catastrophic change it will not survive. This character of evolution, which occurs when natural conditions are changing fast (as the result of impact of asteroids, global volcanic or man-made fossil fuels burning activity) could be explained by reservoir of sleeping genes in so called the "junk" DNA", which are activated in poor life situation of organisms (i.e. infection by virulent agents), where horizontal gene transfers via RNA takes place.

The basic point here is, "junk" DNA is not junk at all, but it doesn't serve for production of proteins, but various RNAs, which are serving both like enhancers or suppressors of transcription of proximal genes, which are used by immune system for production of antibodies, for example. This is particularly because fylogenetic evolution is too slow to accommodate changes in life environment, represented by various infections and parasites. We can expect, at the very beginning of fast-paced organic life, whole genetic variability was represented just by RNA, as DNA is more advanced stuff. This flexibility can explain Lamarckian offspring of fast adaptation to large infections or environmental catastrophes.

Because these events can repeat, we can find many traits of cyclic evolution in repetitive occurrence of many genes observed in "junk" DNA. Recently, experimental results by Gariaev et al indicate that some, and perhaps important, aspects of genetic regulation are mediated at a quantum level (1, 2 - possibly via quantum mirage mechanism).

AWT and quark model of hadrons

Using precise data recently gathered at three different laboratories and some new theoretical tools, Gerald A. Miller, a UW physics professor, has found that the neutron has a negative charge both in its inner core and its outer edge, with a positive charge sandwiched in between to make the particle electrically neutral.

This finding can be explained easily by particle model of AWT, in which more energetic/massive down-quarks (3.5–6.0 MeV/c2) are concentrated bellow up-quark (1.5–3.3 MeV/c2) near the center of neutron, like inside of gravitationaly coupled Eefimov state of three massive bodies of different mass, predicted in 1970. We can consider it a quantum gravity effect at low scale - compare the AWT's knot model of neutron and proton. The same structure, just inverse one is relevant for proton, where uncompensated isospin charge of up quarks manifests itself by electrostatic charge at distance.

Efimov states exists on every dimensional scale, for example inside of hadrons and boson condensates or superconductors. Note, that Efimov trimer state becomes flat, when all particles involved are of the same mass - so its responsible for fractional Hall charge (quantum Hall effect) in thin layers of graphene or Hahn purpur BaCuSi2O6, where path of electrons is geometrically degenerated (frustrated) into flat structure by external magnetic field. Analogously, higher - just less stable/probable - Efimov state exist in four-body systems of boson condensates.

Efimov trimers are analogy of chaotic double pendulum, the rods of which are mediated by gravity force (N-body problem). It just illustrates the limits of formal math to describe even conceptually quite simple systems, which belongs into realm of Aether theory and must be solved by particle simulations in iterative/recursive way.

Tuesday, December 08, 2009

Does weak equivalence break down at the quantum level?

This post is motivated by PhysOrg comment of article Light-pulse atom interferometry in microgravity. It's surprising, how deeply scientists are surprised by fact, pair of dual theories (relativity and quantum mechanics) are inconsistent mutually. Especially if they know already, these theories are giving quite different predictions, concerning energy density of vacuum or cosmological constants. I mean different in more than one hundred orders of magnitude.

Weak equivalence is indeed violated by Casimir force, which is proportional to cross-sectional area of massive objects instead of their mass, so that equivalence principle of general relativity doesn't apply here / and no large speculations are required about it, question marks the less. 

This insight basically means, quantum scale begins at Casimir force scale, which roughly corresponds the wavelength of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), which roughly corresponds the size of transversal waves inside of human brain. Photons of CMB are manifestation of gravitational waves, which are of longitudinal character, so that their shielding resulting in Casimir force is proportional to cross-sectional area (compare the Duillier/LeSage theory of gravitation). Note that the violation of equivalence principle is manifestation of violation of dimensionality of 4D space-time, i.e. the manifestation of extradimensions and nonzero rest mass of photon at the same moment. This force is in fact supersymmetric effect of relativity, i.e. the quantum mechanics effect, too.