Saturday, March 07, 2009

AWT and superconductive mirror for gravitational waves

This post is a comment of recent ArXiv article (via KFC) about concept of superconductive mirrors for gravitational waves. This is a bright and very interesting idea, fully consistent with Aether theory. Now we can rethink Le-Sage theory of gravity and all these “controversial” Podkletnov and Tajmar “antigravity” experiments from perspective of this concept immediately, because by AWT the Casimir and gravity force and inverse square law results from shielding effect of tachyon waves spreading in many dimensions and the shielding of these waves would result into shielding effects of gravity, i.e. antigravity anomalies observed in connection to superconductivity.

From AWT follows, the part of light waves passing through dense body, for example the interior of black holes will spread through it by superluminal speed, i.e. like tachyonic gravitational waves in analogy to wave spreading at water surface and underwater.

Therefore surface of black hole beneath event horizon should reflect light waves by the same way, like water surface reflects sound waves coming from underwater by total reflection mechanisms. This explains, why event horizon behaves like one-way mirror for energy waves. Only long wavelength portion of this radiation can penetrate event horizon freely in form of gravitational waves and so called Hawking radiation. Because observable universe can be interpreted as a dense cluster of black holes, this concept has a close relation to “cosmic hall of mirrors” models of Universe interior and to some observation of infrared-shifted reflections of remote objects, as observed by Spitzer telescope.

In addition, AWT considers high-pressure model of superconductivity, by which charge carriers are forced in chaotic motion due their repulsive interactions under mutual pressure, which are compensating mutually inside of charge stripes of HT superconductors. The asymmetric d-orbitals of transition metals (Nb) and hole stripes in diamond, cuprates or iron arsenides attracts the electrons up to level, their repulsive forces are mutually compensates, so that collective chaotic motion of electrons (superfluidity) can be achieved, which manifests itself like superconductivity.

Black hole are formed by highly compressed system of particles, which are forming superfluid condensate by similar way, like charge carriers inside of superconductors, so that every superconductor can serve as a low density model of black hole interior and it should reflect gravitational waves by its inner surface as well.

The above model brings an interesting analogy between formation of superconductivity induced by presence of hole stripes and black hole formation at the center of galaxies. By AWT superconducting phase appears at the center of hole clusters, because tiny particles (electrons) are mutually collapsed by attractive forces of larger objects (holes formed by atom nuclei). Analogously, black holes appears like vacuum condensate at the center of galaxies, because particle of vacuum are collapsed together here by attraction of larger objects - i.e. by stars near center of galaxy. If this model is right and dynamic equillibrium exists here, then the black hole should lose its mass, when thrown out from gallactic center for example by gravitational slingshot mechanism during galactic collisions - which appears a bit strange for me.

By relativity a black hole is formed, whenever event radius encircles a mass, the critical density of which exceeds Schwarzschild's criterion R = 2 GM. For large black holes critical density is relatively low and it could be achieved even by bulk density of massive bodies surrounding the center of galaxy. It would mean, the black holes can be formed automatically, whenever sufficient number of massive objects appears at proximity by the same way, like superconducting phase appears, whenever sufficient concentration of holes is reached inside of electron fluid. The lack of black holes at the center of small stellar clusters and dwarf galaxies supports this view partially.

AWT is not the only theory, which is considering a concept of tachyonic gravitational waves and black hole model of Universe on background. By holographic principle virtual particle excitations ("tachyon condensation") inside of vacuum can correspond virtual excitations inside of superconductors due the absorption of graviton waves in superfluid, forming the interior of black hole. These excitation should correspond massive particles, which we can observe around us. The more close comparison of AWT and holographic theory will be discussed in post dedicated to polarization and dispersion of gravitational waves later.

Anyway, I hope, these simple mechanical models could improve consistent understanding of concept, which Chiao's group has proposed.

Wednesday, March 04, 2009

AWT and dark matter

Dark matter (DM) is weak gravitational lensing phenomena, occurring mostly at the presence of another massive bodies, albeit some DM galaxies exists by the same way, like galaxies without apparent presence of DM. It was revealed by Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky of the California Institute of Technology in 1933. Currently DM has many plural interpretations / explanations, some of which are related to dark energy phenomena, which can be considered dual to DM, being observed from insintric perspective only.

The simplest explanation of dark matter (DM) is provided by concept of omnidirectional universe expansion in connection to limited speed of energy spreading. This expansion is accelerated near massive bodies, so that the photons spreading from massive bodies are occasionally freezing in expanding space-time. This concept can be extended by geometrodynamics, which explains for example the formation of dark matter rings around rotating objects (galaxies) and gravitational anomalies of satellites, passing through equatorial plane of Earth or solar system rotation. Acceleration of Pioneer anomaly supports this explanation of DM particularly well, because its value (0.87 ± 0.13 nanometers/s^2) agrees with the product of Hubble constant and speed of light at range of roughly ±10%.

Quantum gravity approach based on modified relativity provides anther explanation of DM by modification of Einstein's equations of general relativity. Because every massive object has a zero gravity field at this center, gravitational field of massive bodies exhibits it's own mass/energy density, which increases curvature of space-time at places at the inflexion point of gravity field gradient. Limited speed of light introduces a "dark energy" density gradient into every sufficiently large area of space-time filled by matter by uniform way. At the moment, when space-time curvature becomes sufficiently high (typically at the case of large scale and/or high energy density), an event horizon is formed automatically (typically at the center of large galaxies). Near surface of black holes the high mass/energy density of gravity field gradient can even lead into violation of buoyancy condition and into formation of undulating wave packet, which can be described by quantum mechanics. Therefore modified general relativity models leads to quantization of gravity and they were formalized by many theories, by Heim, Yilmaz or Beckenstein in context of MOND theory in particular.

Therefore by AWT dark matter is simply manifestation of surface tension energy of every density gradient of vacuum, which is forming gravity field of massive bodies. This surface tension behaves like weak repulsive force analogous to surface tension of tiny mercury droplets (which are repelling mutually), i.e. it decreases a action of gravity of massive body due it's increased energy density at 40+ MPsc distance scale. Surface tension phenomena are most pronounced near surface of neutron stars and black holes, where they lead into quantum wave behavior of their surface, but they manifest itself by weak repulsive force even inside of our solar system (compare the Pioneer spacecraft anomaly, Allais effect and other phenomena).

It should be noted, all these explanations are equivalent and/or dual on background, because particles of matter can be interpreted by nested curvature of spacetime by the same way, like nested quantum waves.

Recently, DM was interpreted by supersymmetry (SUSY) phenomena, too. Surface tension effects can be observed for tiny dense clusters of elementary particles, so called strangelets, which are supposed to be mediated by specific heavy boson particles, so called WIMPS. This illustrates, how surface tension phenomena at microscale can be related to surface tension at cosmic scales by AdS/CFT duality. The existence of strangelets was observed as a dimuon event during recent Fermilab experiments, because surface tension pressure stabilizes most of unstable particles against their decay (gluonium, pentaquark and quarkonium or tetraneutron can be all considered as a manifestation of supersymmetry). The risk of avalanche propagation of strangelets belongs the most significant risks of LHC experiments, because it doesn't require so high activation energy, like supercritical black hole formation.

I do not believe, dark matter is formed by WIMPS, because it forms a rings around rotating galaxies analogous to Saturn rings. These effects should disappear completely, when the galaxy rotation stop by geometrodynamics/quantum gravity models, which could falsify axion/WIMPS models of dark matter. At least I don't see any reason, why some heavy bosons should be formed in vacuum, just because galaxy is spinning. Instead of this, dark matter streaks as a whole should be considered as a "WIMPS", heavilly expanded during universe inflation.

Therefore SUSY models based on microscopic WIMPS aren't necessary for explanation of dark matter phenomena. After all, WIMPS should remain considerably stable to be able to form the dark matter streaks (which are of primordial character) and till now we didn't observe them in collider experiments. By AWT dark matter is simply area of less or more dense quantum foam, forming vacuum. It can exhibit gravitational lensing effects and it can trap massive particles into it, the antiparticles in particular. By AWT, during barygenesis an equal portions of normal matter and antimatter were formed. The antimatter has evaporated faster due its antigravity and its remnants were trapped into dark matter streaks. The similar antimatter signal - just a bit stronger - we can observe near center of galaxies, where it surrounds central black hole. Therefore DM usually consist from two parts: the cold dark matter, formed by density gradient of vacuum, and hot dark matter, formed by charged or fast moving particles.

By AWT SUSY is an emergent geometry phenomena of surface gradient and it's quite common in nature, because it manifests in all situations, where exaggerated approach or stance leads in exactly opposite / negativistic response. For example, the negativistic / dismissive stance, which follows the (re)introduction of important ideas into physics (no matter, how useful/significant they can be) can be considered as a supersymmetry phenomena, too. The general consequences of SUSY models will be discussed later in more detail.

Tuesday, March 03, 2009

AWT and monetary economy

This post is a reaction to recent attempt of Prof. Dr. Lee Smolin to define economy on background of agent model of gauge invariance in article named Time and symmetry in models of economic markets (PDF), which is important for AWT by its consideration of Newtonian physics in explanation of economical models:

"It is apparent that time is treated in a way analogous to one aspect of its treatment in Newtonian physics. In classical mechanics, we say that time has been geometrized or spatialized in that the time coordinate is treated just like one of the other coordinates. Motion in a d dimensional space is treated as a geometrical curve in a d + 1 dimensional space. Following this, it is natural in Arrow-Debreu (model of an economy) to treat time the way space is treated. ... The prices are treated as being set at one time, so that goods to be delivered in the future may have a different price today than the same good delivered today. Making use of this, we can say that time, like space, is treated like just another feature of a commodity."

As a LQG proponent, Prof. Smolin avoids description of multidimensional and temporal aspects of this model. Therefore his general line of reasoning still appears somewhat formal/ad-hoced for me, but it still has a good meaning in the context of AWT, which considers the spatialized definition of time, too. By AWT every concept, including time is just a manifestation of nested gradients of Aether density. Despite wonderstricken irony of some comments, here exists many apparent analogies between evolution of life, inorganic matter or human society, including economy.

For example, we can experience a gradual inflation, which is an analogy the inflation in Linde's cosmology, where it is consequence of gradual increase of vacuum density. This increase corresponds the gravitational collapse of collapsar, whose interior the vacuum appears to be formed. From insintric perspective of observer, formed by density fluctuations of such environment the space-time would expand with distance in accordance to Hubble law. This is not so surprising, because economy is energy density driven, so it can be described by dynamics of particle environment. And the energy spreading in particle environment exhibits a gauge invariance by the same way, like geometry of vacuum and particle fields.

We can illustrate it by formation of monetary economy in context of cosmic inflation. At the very beginning no money existed at all - just the exchange of various kinds of goods. By the same way, like the exchange of gravitons at the very beginning of our Universe. By quantum field theory gravitons are considered as a dual particles, playing a role of both fermions, both bosons at the same time. In primitive communism society the good has played both the role of subject of material exchange, both energetic exchange at the same time.

As the density of energy/goods exchange increased, the system did undergo a phase transition as the result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which was followed by specialization. A two kinds of particles - bosons and fermions - emerged during inflation by the same way, like the exchange of values has separated into exchange of material gods and exchange of money, i.e. energy and the monetary economic has appeared. As the result, the density of exchange density has increased remarkably inside of human society, because it's quite easy to transfer a big amount of value via money at distance.

Even evolution of monetary economy can be understood as a process of symmetry breaking of goods condensate. The goods in primitive communism society served both like subject of trade, both like subject of exchange by the same way, like gravitons were serving both like fermions and bosons. During evolution of society in Sumerian empire 3500 - 3000 BC has separated into money (a bosons) and a goods as such. Another degree of condensation (a hadronization) of money has occurred under evolution of more complex financial derivatives (stock exchange derivatives, swaps, forward rate agreements, etc.). From this point of view, formation of money and monetary economy evolution is just a repeating of the old well-tried practice of universe, not a human invention at all.

We can see many other analogies here. The exchanging of money is followed by exchange of material stuff or services in free market economy. The falling of matter into gravitating body is always followed by radiation of energy (an accretion radiation, the meteors or radiation of matter in magnetic field of magnetars are similar effects from this perspective). If the exchange of matter isn't balanced by radiation of energy - which occurs typically for very dense bodies with small surface - a gravitational collapse may occur. Now we are experiencing a financial crisis, i.e. gravitational collapse of stock markets of high density of energy exchange, we are saying, the financial market was overheated. This situation can be predicted by appearance of tiny fluctuations, in analogy to luminosity changes of giant bright stars before their collapse. Therefore the particle based theory can serve as a tool for predicting and avoidance of stock market crashes, which makes it significant from practical reasons.

Money should be understood as a mean of value in its abstract meaning here, not as a currency. We aren't exchanging money or goods in fact, but time/energy required for their earning. Which basically means, total value of money cannot exceed man-hours of people, who have produced them under given level of technology. This connection has an important consequences for macroeconomics and further evolution of human society, as we can demonstrate later. The nonlinear ("money are attracting/earning money") and quantum wave aspects of particle models in economy we will dispute later as well.

From AWT model follows, primitive communism society is dual to "laissez-faire" capitalism, they're indistinguishable by the same way like fermion and bosons inside of graviton quantum foam. Free market economy can exist just under strong incubator of government, which carefully removes all weak or strong mutations (a monopolies, for example). Just under these artificial situations market can remain freely driven by supply-demand equilibrium.

Because individuals aren't usually willing to see/pay their global needs, their personal motivations and intelligence compensate mutually like interactions inside of large system of particles. At sufficiently general level the silly particle models can describe market society quite well even under consideration of low number of dimensions. This is partially because free market economy can handle actual prices only, it doesn't reflect future - so it's principally metastable and it undergoes a business cycle by the same way, like perceived evolution of observable Universe.

Therefore monetary inflation is tightly related to central government and legal actions by the same way, like expansion of space-time. Gradual expansion inflation of Universe prohibits the Big Bang event to occur too often, so that intelligent life has a sufficient time to develop in it. By analogous way, to keep free market stable we are forced to allow some permanent dissipation in it - or we're risking a "big bang" event, i.e. market crash. This is usually done both by centrally driven legal interventions of government, both by anti-dumping policy of private companies.