Saturday, May 16, 2009

Aether model of semiconductors

Being particle fluid based, Aether model can simplify even the intuitive understanding of processes, which are notoriously described in common textbooks, for example the behavior of semiconductor junctions. Because movable electrons doesn't penetrate atom interior very much, by AWT metals can be considered as a dense sponge soaked by movable electrons like fluid, the shape of which roughly corresponds to Fermi surface.

Note that such foam exhibits surface of both positive, both negative curvature. Electrons are repulsing mutually, so they're covering both surfaces of this sponge. The wet surface of sponge is responsible for good electrical and thermal conduction of common metals. At presence of hole conductivity the conductive electrons are collected inside of foam cavities preferably. The flat areas of zero curvature cannot keep the conductive electrons due the balance of electrostatic forces, and they correspond the band gap, occurring in common semiconductors. Under situation, when the motion of free electrons remains restricted to sponge cavities in continuous stripes arranged in hyperlattice, which are serving like pipes full of highly compressed electron gas, we can expect high temperature superconductivity in such system.

Another interesting situation may occur, when two pieces of sponge of different surface curvature are connected together. We can model such situation by connecting of two pieces of porous material, the hydrophilic and hydrophobic one, soaked by moderate amount of water. Because hydrophobic surface repels polar molecules of water, the water will collect inside of pores, thus emulating hole conductivity of P-type semiconductors. The hydrophilic material is attracted by water surface, so that water is forming bridges connecting convex surfaces and it represents a N-type of conductor here.

At the moment, when two pieces of such materials are connected together, the portion of fluid from hydrophobic material is soaked into the hydrophilic half of junction, thus removing water from cavities of neighboring part of hydrophobic material. This is a direct analogy of formation of space charge zone / depletion layer of semiconductor junction. Note that suction of liquid from hydrophilic part of junction doesn't improve the water transfer, it just leads to removal of additional amount of water from hydrophobic part, thus leaving it even less conductive for water molecules.

A quite different situation may appear, when we push additional amount of water in hydrophilic part. After soaking the dry portion of hydrophilic junction, the excessive water will fill up the cavities, so it can pass freely through capillary junction. Apparently, a surface tension based "diode" is formed, but we can imagine even much more complex structures analogous to transistor, thyristor and others, based on capillary forces inside of porous materials of different polarity. Nature supposedly uses these principles for controlled osmosis inside of living cells already, because surface of cell membranes is porous and it contains both hydrophilic, both hydrophobic part, formed by phospholipides.

Note that pushing of fluid into our "capillary diode" requires to overcome pressure exerted by capillary repulsion during filling of emptied cavities inside of hydrophobic part of junction. This corresponds the voltage drop in forward bias direction of semiconductor junctions. We can even met with analogy of recombination at the flat portion of porous surface, when water droplets are forced to overcame negative surface tension, so their surfaces are moving in accelerated way. At the case of liquids of extreme surface tension (like the mercury inside of porous glass), such area can even become the source of audible noise, thus mimicking the formation of photons at the recombination centers of PN junction nearly completelly. Such centers can be observed by Lorentz microscopy directly in thin layer of low temperature superconductors (compare the embedded animation bellow).

Isn't it a bit strange, nobody has ever come with such trivial and intuitive models of superconductivity, not saying about semiconductors and semiconductor junction? Well, this is not so strange in contemporary physics, because particle based models cannot be handled easily by consecutive logics of formal math models, so that formal theorists avoids them. The more easily they can become subject of intuitive thinking and computer simulations, though.

Sunday, May 10, 2009

AWT and collective guilt

Recently I've read about case of web executive working for TF1, Europe's largest TV network, who sent an email to his Member of Parliament opposing the government's law proposal of Internet disconnections for those who repeatedly infringe online copyrights. His MP forwarded the email to the minister, who forwarded it to TF1. The author of the email soon received a letter saying he is fired for "strong differences with the company's strategy" in a private email sent from a private address (French corporations and government are entangled in ways that people in other countries might find unfamiliar). The point was, MP people were passing the e-mail along for informational purposes reportedly - though if that were true, one wonders, why the identifying information wasn't stripped out of the message. No one "meant" for this to happen - but happened it has, anyway - just because of careless approach of responsible people chaining the sensitive information, which was supported by their own biased stance.

The above case reopens the question of collective guilt. This is subconsciouses emotional reaction, that results among a group of individuals, when it is perceived that the group illegitimately harmed another people. It just illustrates, how sensitive indicator of morality our conscience is - especially in western society, which is "guilt-based" rather then "shame-based". By AWT such morality becomes a manifestation of emergent phenomena in system, when only slightly biased stance of individual components may lead to the fatal results and phase transforms. We can illustrate this situation by large group of people, waiting for opening of discount shop. Even though every member of crowd exerts only weak force to its neighbors, some of people at the head of crowd will get trampled by this crowd.

AWT explains emergence of such action inside of multiparticle field by the assumption, every system of finite sized consists of large number of particles, circumscribed by their surface density gradient, which is manifestation of internal spin in hidden dimensions. In space with even number of spatial dimensions the particle spin is compensated by the same way, like the mutual motion of particles, because of lack of chirality of such system.

But in 3D the situation becomes different. The translation momentum of particles remains compensated at the sufficient distance, whereas the momentum of their internal motion (i.e. the spin) not. Such system behaves like spin field of cellular domains, analogous to Weiss domains of ferromagnetic material. Due the nonzero surface curvature of individual particles the resulting spin of whole system will remain always unbalanced and it undergoes so called spontaneous symmetry breaking. This is because of hairy ball theorem, which states, that there is no nonvanishing continuous tangent vector field on the sphere ("you can't comb a hairy ball flat without creating a cowlick"). From this reason a field formed by system of 3D spherical particles would always exhibit a nonzero vorticity, which would cumulate with distance and it manifest itself in lattice of vorticity cells at the distance. Which basically means, we cannot have a 3D space without black holes separated at distance in less or more regular domains. This is the reason, why our space-time appears filled by black holes even at the most distant view of Hubble ultradepth field without apparent limit. Just the existence of space-time in limited numbers of dimensions is the reason, why its symmetry becomes violated in presence of many higher dimensions undeniably.

The principle of collective guilt has its practical application at the case of particle physics, when mainstream physics insists on safety of LHC experiments , although official safety analysis ignores many apparent risky factors because of biased stance of mainstream physics toward LHC. The subtle bias of physical community can lead to the same result, like carefully planned conspirative activity of mad terrorist just because of cumulative effect of individual ignorance. As another case can serve the politically motivated refusal of Aether theory at the beginning of 20th century, the rise of Nazi party and Nazism in Germany before WW II or the blind adherence to peer review principles, which has lead to ignorance of cold fusion or antigravity experiments. The memo is, we should never underestimate collective ignorance, when more individuals are involved without public feedback by Czech proverb: "A hundred times nothing killed the donkey".

AWT and quintessence concept

In physics, quintessence is a hypothetical form of dark energy postulated as an explanation of observations of an accelerating of universe expansion. Quintessence causes the effect we experience as gravity. Since quintessence exists only in empty space, it does not exist where sub-atomic particles exist. A planet such as the Earth consists of many sub-atomic particles, and between those particles, quintessence exists.

Since Earth's moon consists of fewer sub-atomic particles than those that make up the Earth, there is a smaller volume where quintessence is absent when compared to the Earth. Therefore, the push from quintessence is less restricted by the moon. Hence, the difference in the quintessence push from the volume of space encompassed by the moon versus the volume of space encompassed by the Earth results in what we experience as the pull of gravity.

The quintessence concept follows from diffusion of particles in dense Aether model of AWT and it corresponds the "ultramundane flux" (i.e. flux of tachyons or gravitational waves), which was conjectured by Fatio/Le Sage theory of gravitation (1690) before more than three hundred years.

The usage of new denomination for classical well known concepts of former authors without quotation violates the principles of Occam's razor and scientific priority and it's called a plagiarism. In this case it's rather an another attempt of mainstream proponents to cover the apparent fact, they fighted against Aether concept for many years, while adopting Aether ideas quietly on background - thus fooling the publicity and itself (the usage of Lorentz invariance or Lagrangian and Hamilton mechanics borrowed from Aether theory is the problem of the same category).

In dual way, we can consider introduction of quintessence concept like attempt, how to avoid the censorship of peer-review during presenting of extrapolations of Aether theory. Every sectarian community doesn't allow and tolerate mistakes in the eyes of publicity, which leads to reintroduction of formerly misunderstood ideas under new names. Such behavior is even more stupid and amoral, then the stance of Holy Church, which simply refused scientific ideas - but it didn't stole them for the sake of its theology.

In AWT the dark energy is the mechanism dual to dark matter, i.e. the surface tension of density blobs of vacuum, which are source of gravity field and gravitational lensing phenomena. On the outer sides of every blob the gravity field is of negative curvature, which leads to repulsive force at the distance. The same effect is responsible for weak nuclear force at short distances or for repulsion of mercury droplets at human scale. It means, when massive objects during inflation achieve certain critical distance, they're repelled by repulsive force instead of attraction.

Neither AWT, neither relativity theory are forced to consider quintessence at all, because
  1. omnidirectional expansion of space-time is one of implicit consequences of general relativity (a positive or negative cosmological constant)
  2. the omnidirectional expansion of space-time in connection of curvature of space-time concept of gravity field in general relativity leads to the very same effect, like the quintessence.
Which basically means, quintessence concept is redundant both for aetherists, both for relativists - as both the dark energy, both dark matter phenomena can be explained by existing theories without (re)introduction of ad-hoced concepts and postulates.