Using precise data recently gathered at three different laboratories and some new theoretical tools, Gerald A. Miller, a UW physics professor, has found that the neutron has a negative charge both in its inner core and its outer edge, with a positive charge sandwiched in between to make the particle electrically neutral.

This finding can be explained easily by particle model of AWT, in which more energetic/massive down-quarks (3.5–6.0 MeV/c2) are concentrated bellow up-quark (1.5–3.3 MeV/c2) near the center of neutron, like inside of gravitationaly coupled Eefimov state of three massive bodies of different mass, predicted in 1970. We can consider it a quantum gravity effect at low scale - compare the AWT's knot model of neutron and proton. The same structure, just inverse one is relevant for proton, where uncompensated isospin charge of up quarks manifests itself by electrostatic charge at distance.

Efimov states exists on every dimensional scale, for example inside of hadrons and boson condensates or superconductors. Note, that Efimov trimer state becomes flat, when all particles involved are of the same mass - so its responsible for fractional Hall charge (quantum Hall effect) in thin layers of graphene or Hahn purpur BaCuSi2O6, where path of electrons is geometrically degenerated (frustrated) into flat structure by external magnetic field. Analogously, higher - just less stable/probable - Efimov state exist in four-body systems of boson condensates.

Efimov trimers are analogy of chaotic double pendulum, the rods of which are mediated by gravity force (N-body problem). It just illustrates the limits of formal math to describe even conceptually quite simple systems, which belongs into realm of Aether theory and must be solved by particle simulations in iterative/recursive way.

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The quark model is curious. Recent advancements in quantum science have produced the picoyoctometric, 3D, interactive video atomic model imaging function, in terms of chronons and spacons for exact, quantized, relativistic animation. This format returns clear numerical data for a full spectrum of variables. The atom's RQT (relative quantum topological) data point imaging function is built by combination of the relativistic Einstein-Lorenz transform functions for time, mass, and energy with the workon quantized electromagnetic wave equations for frequency and wavelength.

The atom labeled psi (Z) pulsates at the frequency {Nhu=e/h} by cycles of {e=m(c^2)} transformation of nuclear surface mass to forcons with joule values, followed by nuclear force absorption. This radiation process is limited only by spacetime boundaries of {Gravity-Time}, where gravity is the force binding space to psi, forming the GT integral atomic wavefunction. The expression is defined as the series expansion differential of nuclear output rates with quantum symmetry numbers assigned along the progression to give topology to the solutions.

Next, the correlation function for the manifold of internal heat capacity energy particle 3D functions is extracted by rearranging the total internal momentum function to the photon gain rule and integrating it for GT limits. This produces a series of 26 topological waveparticle functions of the five classes; {+Positron, Workon, Thermon, -Electromagneton, Magnemedon}, each the 3D data image of a type of energy intermedon of the 5/2 kT J internal energy cloud, accounting for all of them.

Those 26 energy data values intersect the sizes of the fundamental physical constants: h, h-bar, delta, nuclear magneton, beta magneton, k (series). They quantize atomic dynamics by acting as fulcrum particles. The result is the exact picoyoctometric, 3D, interactive video atomic model data point imaging function, responsive to keyboard input of virtual photon gain events by relativistic, quantized shifts of electron, force, and energy field states and positions.

Images of the h-bar magnetic energy waveparticle of ~175 picoyoctometers are available online at http://www.symmecon.com with the complete RQT atomic modeling manual titled The Crystalon Door, copyright TXu1-266-788. TCD conforms to the unopposed motion of disclosure in U.S. District (NM) Court of 04/02/2001 titled The Solution to the Equation of Schrodinger.

Voila, three layer model of proton - another indirect confirmation of the above structure.

An alternative explanation of the elementary elements is entirely based on self-bending/circular EM waves: http://classicala...pot.com/ - check the model of electron and proton/neutron loops. You may want to search for QUITAR theory of Quantoken, which is based on similar simple math.

Extension of the Ring Model of the Electron to include Mass

Derivation of the Fine Structure Constant, Derivation of the gravitational constant

Origin of the Numeric Values of Electron Mass and the Electron-Proton Mass Ratio

Models of electron. Is the electron a photon with toroidal topology? Origin of the numeric values of electron mass and electron-proton mass ratio. Proton and Neutron Mass from GUITAR

We can guess the mass of protons with lattice calculations with 5% precision, but it needs huge computers and complex QCD = it's a job and salary generator for many people involved. The contemporary physicists don't seek the simple and elegant solutions of problem: they do seek stable jobs. We can see it everywhere.

What is spin?According to the prevailing belief, the spin of the electron or of some other particle is a mysterious internal angular momentum for which no concrete physical picture is available, and for which there is no classical analog. However, on the basis of an old calculation by Belinfante [ Physica 6, 887( 1939)], it can be shown, that the spin may be regarded as an angular momentum generated by a circulating flow of energy in the wave field of the electron. Likewise, the magnetic moment may be regarded as generated by a circulating flow of charge in the wave field. This provides an intuitively appealing picture and establishes that neither the spin nor the magnetic moment are "internal" they are not associated with the internal structure of the electron, but rather with the structure of its wave field. Furthermore, a comparison between calculations of angular momentum in the Dirac and electromagnetic fields shows that the spin of the electron is entirely analogous to the angular momentum carried by a classical circularly polarized wave.

Derivation mass of proton from Machian principles.

By GUITAR theory the mass of Higgs boson should be 4 π Me / α² =

120.586 GeV. The Me is the mass of electron = (1 cm³)

c² Λ / 2 G α π.

Λ is cosmological constant, α is fine structure constant = e² /c hbar

Derivation of α and particle mass by Randell Mills (via 1, 2)

Nige Cook https://nige.wordpress.com http://quantumfieldtheory.org/

https://www.facebook.com/nigelbryancook

Self consistent automatic QFT predictions of particle masses Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.

QM says all is made of waves; linear EM waves or ring particle" waves. Why do we cling to particles? The quarks are in fact quadrants of a circular wave. Protons and neutrons are three quadrants each, with the wave motion as up - down - etc. a wave of the vacuum which is time. The smallest ring is the half wave electron with 2 nodes of changes of time rate direction which gives 4 E lines. An electron is not a small ball with an unit electric charge stuck to it. It is a unit electrical line connected to the structure that generates it by induction, the unit magnetic (negative) monopole.... Linear waves (EM) are even number of monopoles with charges all internally coupled. Odd number of monopoles or odd number of quadrants gives ring waves "particles"... More at

http://www.angelfire.com/ak/mlebel/ item 16.1 Electron and hadrons ring structure

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