This post was motivated by recent articles, announcing null result in search for primordial GWs at frequencies around 100 hertz on LIGO and VIRGO (1, 2, 3). These GWs should be created during the first instants of the Universe's existence. It's somewhat surprising -but still logical with respect to common disbelief in Aether model - that while microwave photons of cosmic microwave background (CMB) were correctly recognized in famous expanding balloon analogy as a remnant of primordial gamma ray photons, covering surface of our Universe expanded during inflation, the same photons weren't considered primordial GW's collapsed during inflation from supersymmetric perspective of AdS/CFT duality.

Such duality points directly to equivalence of primordial photons and gravitons which was transformed into duality of CMB photons and gravitational waves. It means, primordial gravitational waves searched are just the tiny density fluctuations of vacuum density, responsible for CMB noise, which was laboriously filtered out from signal in LIGO/VIRGO detectors! This is funny situation, indeed. The equivalence of CMB photons and gravitational waves could be understood as a manifestation of GUT too, because Big Bang theory is assuming, during Universe formation all interactions were merged into single one. So it's not so strange, we are observing both primordial gravitons, both primordial gravitational waves like primordial photons, i.e. like microwave background (CMB) - every other result would violate GUT.

There are at least three levels of dumbness:

- First level is to spend money while trying to find artifacts, which cannot be observed by their very definition. But this is basically, what the research is about by R. Feynman ("
*Research*is what I do when I don′t*know*what I′m doing".)

- Second level is to spend money while trying to find artifacts, which everyone can detect in his TV antenna (i.e. background noise in GWs detectors).
- The third level of stupidity is to intentionally ignore / filter / wipe out just these results of observations, which are supposed to be detected.

Gravitational waves are deformations of space-time curvature, i.e. they're manifesting like density fluctuations of space. They shouldn't be confused with CMB photons - CMB photon is component of density fluctuation, which propagates in light speed, but in short distance only. Gravitational waves forming CMB noise at human scale are dual to gravitons at Planck scale: we can say, they're gravitons expanded during big bang in similar way, like CMB photons are form of gamma radiation expanded during inflation of early universe. In addition, GWs shouldn't be confused with gravity waves, which are product of gravity and EM interaction coupling in material environment. As a direct analogy of GWs in AWT model of water surface are underwater sound waves, which are spreading in extra-dimensions with respect to surface waves. Due the low compressibility and high density of water such underground waves can be observed at water surface only during the most intensive explosions, like at the case of underwater nuclear explosions (compare YouTube videos 1, 2, 3). Because sound spread in higher number of dimensions, then the surface waves, it suffers by faster dispersion with compare to surface waves.

Inside of vacuum - which is much more dense phase of Aether, then the water - such effects are even much more pronounced and gravitational waves are dispersing there at the distance scale corresponding the wavelength of CMB (~ 2 cm). As an evidence of GWs dispersion can serve Casimir force, which can be detected at micrometer scale and its distance dependence corresponds the longitudinal wave shielding in six dimensions, thus violating equivalence principle of general relativity, being proportional the area, not by inertial mass of objects. Shielding effect of gravitational waves from CMB manifest even at cosmological scale as a anomalous deceleration of Pioneer and other space-probes (1, 2), which violates equivalence principle, too.

From analogy with underwater wave spreading follows, GWs are way way faster, then the light waves: they would be able to cross whole observable Universe in a moment in the same way, like light wave is able to cross black hole of average size. So GWs are violating causality of information spreading mediated by light waves (radiative time arrow) and they're inherently chaotic, so they're interacting with chaotic matter only, i.e. boson condensates (compare the gravitational waves reflection and shielding during Podkletnov anitgravity experiments with rotating superconductors). Being tachyons, gravitational waves are expected to be primarily responsible for entanglement and "action at distance" phenomena of quantum mechanics.

Highly dimensional character of gravity interaction is the main reason, the intensity of gravitational waves decreases a much faster with distance, being dispersed by membranes of quantum foam, because they're spreading across quantum foam bubbles in longitudinal waves. This effectively means, gravitational waves are of dispersive character, so they cannot be observed at distance even et the case of quite energetic events, like at the case of black hole and pulsar merging. This doesn't mean, dispersion of energy doesn't exist here so we can still consider theory of binary pulsar changes relevant to gravitational radiation.

While AWT explanation of GWs is quite simple and intuitive, general disbelief in Aether concept prohibited scientists to think in such straightforward way for many years, until recently some of them changed their opinion in relation to brane world paradigm and so-called holographic principle. Accordingly, some superluminal GWs models were presented in peer-reviewed journals (1, 2) recently together with observation of random changes in level of gravitational noise, which is attributed to holographic model of GWs (so called the holographic noise). Note that holographic projection at Universe scale requires superluminal speed of GWs for to be able to work at all, thus violating general relativity theory of GWs from its very beginning. But it's not quite clear for me, why just the noise was considered here. If we found a harmonic gravitational wave, it could be interpreted as a part of giant holograph as well. In this way, the finding of gravitational noise appears rather invariant to holographic theory for me and it can still have a more robust and consistent explanation in context of AWT.

Steven Weinberg: "

*An expert is a person who avoids the small errors while sweeping on to the grand fallacy.*"

## 24 comments:

Duality of gravitational and EM waves could be observable near black holes, too.

Extended Heim theory posits that virtual pairs of gravitophotons (gravity and expansion force) are created by very strong magnetic fields and that rapidly moving protons are able to absorb gravitational force gravitophotons.

When supernova explosions occur, black holes undergo conservation of angular momentum resulting in incredibly rapid rotation rates and outer surface rotation speeds. This rapidly rotating mass also creates intense magnetic fields probably stronger even than neutron stars which are estimated at over 100,000 Tesla in strength.

If Extended Heim Theory is correct then a Black Hole's source of gravity is due to nothing more than its massive magnetic field, rapid rotation, and resultant conversion of electromagnetic energy into gravitational energy and vice-versa.

The conceptual problem with

GW detection by changes of pulsar frequencyis, the light is propagating very slowly near pulsars from exsintric perspective - so if gravitational wave would spread only by speed of light (as the general relativity predicts) - it could never affect pulsar frequency in real time.The story of Einsteins first peer review - a

paper with wrong conclusions and the revelation of the reviewer's identity 70 years later

Relativists use a simplified form of Eistein field equations to calculate various properties of his gravitational field, including Einstein gravitational waves, which are based on the Einstein's pseudo-tensor. This simplified form is called the linearised field equations. They do this because Einstein's field equations are highly non-linear (implicit actually) and impossible to solve analytically. So they use the linearised form, simply assuming that they can do so. However Hermann Weyl proved in 1944 already, that linearisation of the field equations implies the existence of a Einstein's pseudo-tensor that, except for the trivial case of being precisely zero, does not otherwise exist:

http://www.jstor.org/stable/2371768

T. Levi-Civita's derivation of the divergence of pseudo-tensor:

http://www.sjcrothers.plasmaresources.com/Levi-Civita.pdf

In linearized, Einstein–Maxwell theory on flat spacetime, an oscillating electric dipole is the source of a spin-2 field

http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/462/2071/1987.full

As Eddington pointed out already before many years, gravitational waves do not have a unique speed of propagation. The speed of the alleged waves is coordinate dependent. A different set of coordinates yields a different speed of propagation and such waves would propagate like noise.

The same result can be imagined easily with water surface model, where transverse waves are serving like analogy of waves of light and the gravitational waves are behaving like longitudinal sound waves, which are spreading through underwater. Because sound waves are spreading a way faster, then the surface waves, they would manifest like indeterministic noise at the water surface - and no expensive analysis or devices is required for such understanding

Although Einstein had defended the principle of relativity, Poincaré wasn't convinced, and in particular worried about the prohibition on superluminal signaling. Anticipating a coming revolution in gravity, he wrote: "

are such signals inconceivable, if we admit with Laplace that universal gravitation is transmitted a million times more rapidly than light?"In Issue of Nature, March 1, 2007, Clive Speake wrote about another prediction of String Theory made by Sundrum[R. Sundrum, Phys. Rev. D 69, 044014 (2004).]. In it, graviton is a "fat string", with a spatial scale associated with it at 90 microns. This means that the good old Newton's gravitational constant is expected to deviate from its standard value below 90 microns. A recent measurement of the gravitational constant made by Kapner et al.[2] have measured the gravitational constant up to 55 microns, with no deviation from the expected value [D.J. Kapner, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 021101 (2007)]

No gravitational waves have been seen so far at LIGO

A. Loinger (2000), Non-existence of radiation damping of gravitational waveshttp://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/0003/0003230.pdf

Aether drag belongs into isomorhism of Navier-Stokes equations and Maxwells equations. For example the Lense-Thirring drag for gravitating bodies and Wayne drag for charged bodies. It was observed many times, for example at the case of slowing of fast rotating pulsars. For example the famous troll case: In 1974 Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor located the slowing of PSR 1913 16, attributed it (incorrectly) to gravitational waves radiation and they even got Nobel price for it in 1993. Although whole this story is apparently just about Lense-Thirring drag inside of binary systems.

In 1863 F.A.E. and Em. Keller presented a theory by using a Le Sage type mechanism in combination with longitudinal waves of the aether. They supposed that those waves are propagating in every direction and losing some of their momentum after the impact on bodies, so between two bodies the pressure exerted by the waves is weaker than the pressure around them. In 1869 L. de Boisbaudran presented the same model as Leray, but like Keller he replaced the particles with longitudinal waves of the aether. In AWT these longitudinal waves are just gravitational waves, it's the only difference.

The failure of the Einstein gravitational field equation to include a tensor characterizing the gravitational field is a severe limitation.

The difficult childhood of gravitational waves

Note that the change of period of Taylor-Hulce pulsar can be explained with tidal forces easily. It's the only experimental verification of gravitational waves we have - but the tidal forces were never considered in it - why? Their magnitude depends on the viscosity of stars, which cannot be estimated reliably - so it was simply neglected as a whole - and Taylor-Hulce got their Nobel prize...

Astronomical observations indicate that the Earth's acceleration is toward the gravitational center of the sun even though it is moving around the sun, whereas light from the sun is observed to be aberated. If the gravitational force between the sun and the earth were aberated then gravitational forces tangent to the earth's orbit would result, causing the earth to spiral away from the sun, due to conservation of angular momentum. Current astronomical observations estimate the phase speed of gravity to be greater than 2E1010 c. The Walker-Dual paper did demonstrate velocities for electrical and gravitational phase propagation in excess of the speed of light. This was predicted by Feynman's 1963 calculations, and does not contradict conventional theory. Walker and Dual also tentatively reported superluminal group electrical wave propagation, and wrote that this may violate causality. In 2000 William Walker wrote a paper describing superluminal electrical wave propagation in the near-field realm, ie one wavelength or less from a dipole emitter. He then proposed that magnetic and gravitational fields would behave similarly. Near the end of his paper he made some of the same claims as Van Flandern: "Light from the sun is not observed to be collinear with the sun's gravitational force.

In Space, Time and Gravitation Eddington discusses the speed of gravity propagation. He remarks that if gravity propagated with nite velocity the motion of the planets around the Sun would become unstable, due to a torque acting on the planets. The problem was already known to Newton and was examined by Laplace, who calculated a lower limit for the gravity propagation velocity nding a value much larger than the speed of light

During the total eclipses of the sun on June 30, 1954, and October 22, 1959, quite analogous deviations of the plane of oscillation of the paraconical pendulum were observed.

Aberration and the Speed of Gravity The observed absence of gravitational aberration requires that Newtonian gravity propagate at a speed cg > 2 × 10E+10 c.

Eddington's original article: The present investigation leads to the conclusion that transverse-transverse waves are propagated with the speed of light in all systems of co-ordinates. Waves of the first [longitudinal] and second [torsional] types have no fixed velocity. They are mere sinuosities in the co-ordinate system, and the only speed of propagation relevant to them is the "speed of thought". In fact Eddington had a very clear idea of a co-ordinate free method of determining the modes of gravitational wave propagation (via infinitesimal diffeomorphisms of the co-ordinate systems) well before Einstein, whom only managed this 15 years later.

Here's a simple EM thought experiment that shows that non-propagating modes are required. We all know that a point source can emit EM radiation. However, if you time reverse the situation, one is confronted by the fact that incoming propagating waves can't be focused to a point. How do we resolve this paradox? THe resolution is that the point source emits some non-propagating modes (fall off as 1/r3 , IIRC) as well.

Gravity Makes the Universe Classical

Another reason against existence of gravitational waves (as the mainstream physics imagines it) is the concept of gravitational waves itself You don't you believe into it? Well, if every spherically unsymmetrical change of space-time curvature should radiate the gravitational waves, then every gravitational wave should radiate these waves too, well, recursively - and they should scatter and decay fast. This is actually quite consistent with AWT model, in which the underwater waves will scatter fast into noise of solitons at the moment, when they achieve the water surface after brief distance.

animationSurprisingly enough, this insight is supported long time with mainstream physics too in the form of argument against gravitational geons. In 1954 J.A.Wheeler proposed a hypothetical object, composed of gravitational waves only - so called the gravitational geon). This concept has been studied extensively until Brill and Hartle in 1964 proved, that the geons can be never gravitationally stable. But the physicists apparently didn't realize, such a conclusion applies to the gravitational waves too.

The gravitons were just designed as a virtual particles, mediating the gravitational force (i.e. like the analogy of photons, mediating the EM force).

In AWT they're doing it by transfer of matter, which is the source of gravity. The matter is nothing else, than the curvature of space-time, in similar way like the alleged gravitational waves. Therefore the gravitons are actually formed with gravitational waves. Their role to gravitational waves is analogous to role of photons with respect to light.

In AWT the photons and gravitons usually come together, as the graviton is the 2-spin component of every light wave, the photon is the 1-spin component of every light wave. The matter which gets radiated during glow of stars and during supernovae explosions is mediated just with graviton part of photons, which is doing these photons massive.

A. Loinger, "Vain is the pursuit of gravity waves", (1999), "On PSR1913+16", (2000), "Non-existence of gravitational waves. (2003), "Einsteinian Manifolds and Gravitational Waves", (2007), "On the LIGO-VIRGO search of coalescing-binary signals"(2012)

Earth as Giant Gravitational Wave Detector - seismographic data place new, stronger limits on the amount of gravitational wave energy in the Universe.

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