Thursday, July 09, 2009

Burning water and water memory

This post is motivated by recent ideas about dissociation of water by radiowaves, presented on Matti Pitkanen's blog, where he explains it by his theory involving "dark phase conjugate photons"(?). In 2007 radio-engineer John Kanzius developed an apparatus for cancer treatment by polarized radiowaves in 13 MHz frequency range. During desalination tests of his device with tube filled by marine watter (~ 3% solution of NaCl) he observed an evolution of hydrogen, which can be ignited by lighter (video 1, 2). Experiments were confirmed and replicated (1, 2) by Rustum Roy, a materials scientist at Pennsylvania State University.



In my opinion the origin of this phenomena is more trivial and it's closely related to memory properties of water, which manifests by number of anomalies, like water autothixotropy(1), Mpemba effect, homeopathic activity of various drugs and chemicals in minute concentration etc. which are based on oligomerisation of water into form of rigid water clusters of icosahedral symmetry. The water cluster formation is based on the finding of X-ray spectroscopy, there exists only two hydrogen bridges available per molecule, so that the formation of chained flat structures simmilar to sponge or foam is preffered. Some observations indicate, the salt ions dissolved may increase surface energy during water clusters and foam formation.



Note the close connection of icosahedral water clusters to sacred geometry of five elements, where the icosahedron shape is assigned just to water element, which could mean, vedic authors have general information about five-fold structure of fluids, the structure of glass and water clusters in particular.



Interesting aspect of quantum behavior of water clusters is their shape memory, which originates from quantum mirage phenomena. The conformal change of shape in particular place of cluster surface is followed by redistribution of charge density, so that the molecules of water are attached/removed to cluster from opposite side in such a way, the original cluster shape is retained like of piece plasticine, although it undergoes rapid Brownian motion as a whole. In AWT analogous mechanism keeps the shape of particles during their travel through vacuum foam.



From the above reasons, each water cluster propagates through density fluctuations of water like solid body of much large effective mass, then the single water molecule - so it can absorb energy in radiowave frequency energy density range (13 MHz, i.e. 5.10E-8 eV). During mutual collisions of such larger clusters the cavitation and splitting of water molecules may occur as a result of anti-Stokes scattering and various resonance phenomena. As a macroscopic demonstration of anti-Stokes scattering can serve famous Astroblaster toy and/or jet formation during water splash, explosion of cumulative warheads (bazooka) and/or collapse of black holes and supernovae (compare the recent simulations of "super rebound" effect during cluster collisions). The main trick here is, the energy of cluster surface waves affects the total bilance of translation energy during collision. Such resonance can have it's analogy in explanation of cold fusion for clusters of deuterons dissolved in palladium lattice.

The electrolysis of salty water by radiowaves is interesting from practical purposes, because it leads to thermodynamically metastable mixture of hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen gas and it doesn't require cooling, diaphragms and metal electrodes affected by corrosion and surface reactions, which decrease yield during classical electrolysis. In polar organic solvents we can expect analogous reaction mechanism, interesting from preparative perspective. Furthermore we can expect a strong isotope effect here, which may become significant for heavy water production. Therefore the electrodeless electrolysis by radiowaves can have a great future and it's definitely worth of further research - despite it doesn't enable to produce fuel from watter in cheaper way, then classical thermodynamics allows.

25 comments:

Zephir said...

In 2007 radio-engineer John Kanzius observed splitting of water by polarized radiowaves. During tests of his device he observed an evolution of hydrogen, which can be ignited by lighter. Experiments were confirmed and replicated by materials scientist at Pennsylvania State University.

We can observe the splitting of water molecules, requiring activation energy of about 1,3 eV by radiowave frequency energy density range (13 MHz) - i.e. 5.10E-8 eV). This is the same ratio of energy density, like inducing cold fusion requiring 10 MeV for activation by electrochemical potential 1 eV in palladium cell. Both these phenomena can have similar high-level mechanism in analogy of water clusters to presence of pycnodeuterium phase inside of free space in host octahedral palladium lattice.

http://www.aetherwavetheory.info/images/physics/nuclear/fusion/cold/pycnodeuterium.gif

Zephir said...

Nobel laureate Julian Schwinger wrote some papers about the feasibility of cold fusion just before he
died from cancer. Schwinger claimed, that according to his quantum mechanical calculations, cold fusion is possible because when deuterium atoms are trapped in a palladium lattice,
their proximity allows for their quantum mechanical interactions to bypass the hot fusion requirement of high energy collisions. Schwinger died from cancer in 1994, and could not
finish this research, but he wrote notes on this subject until his last hours. However, his articles on cold fusion, was rejected by the APS by the referees who have "connections",
and as a result, Schwinger resigned from the APS to protest the censorship. Schwinger said that the censorship was because of the well established hot fusion groups who are getting
government funding, and when their interests are threatened, this new avenue was suppressed.

Zephir said...

Could This 'Forbidden Medicine' Eliminate the Need for Drugs?

Zephir said...

The another thing, which may be connected with "hidden slow dynamics" are memory properties of water, related to Mpemba effect, homeopathy and cluster medicine.

Compact water clusters are behaving like groups of balls in Newton cradle, which maintains its shape, albeit another balls are colliding with it from both sides. The same effect at the quantum scale is described like quantum mirage. As the result, the shape of clusters remains independent of the lifetime of individual linkages

In this way, water clusters could maintain their shape a long time after the surface active chemicals were removed from water solution. While function of many proteins depends on their spatial configuration, rather then composition, the shape memory of water clusters could explain the biological activity of diluted solutions. We shouldn't forget, even the maximal dilution cannot remove molecules adsorbed at surfaces of vials, so such solutions cannot be never completely free of chemicals.

Zephir said...

HOMEOPATHY AND SCIENCE: A CLOSER LOOK

Zephir said...

There is a strange experimental finding by a group led by a HIV Nobel winner Montagnier giving support for peculiar quantum superpositions of living things .

http://www.springerlink.com/content/0557v31188m3766x/

A water solution containing human cells infected by bacteria is sterilized by a filtering procedure and healthy cells are added to the filtrate. Within few weeks the infected cells re-appear. A possible speculative explanation (between many others much more natural, indeed) is the quantum mirage phenomena, which recreated a working copies of bacterial genome from water clusters matrices.

Water clusters exhibit interesting aspect of their behavior: albeit elastic, they behave like tiny pieces of plasticine due the quantum mirage phenomena. This well known quantum effect is able to fill holes in large groups of atoms by quantum resonance effect of probability wave.

We can imagine, in environment formed by shaped water clusters the synthesis of proteins will be affected in the way, which avoids the physical presence of bacterial RNA from original solution.

Compare he article MicroRNA can move between cells (physorg.com)

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Zephir said...

New study confirms, cell phones cause brain tumors.

It's not so difficult to develop a working theory for it. If polarized radiowaves can split water to hydrogen and peroxide radicals (which are well known as source of mutations) - why it couldn't cause a tumor? In addition, the lengthy noodle-like molecules of DNA could be particularly sensitive to long wavelength radiation because of resonance.

Zephir said...

WHAT'S BEHIND THE WAR AGAINST COLD FUSION?

Zephir said...

The research published in ACS’ Journal of Physical Chemistry B, shows very clearly that homology recognition between sequences of several hundred nucleotides occurs without physical contact or presence of proteins. Double helixes of DNA can recognize matching molecules from a distance and then gather together, all seemingly without help from any other molecules or chemical signals.
http://www2.thphy.uni-duesseldorf.de/~awynveen/doc/JPCB08.pdf
In the study, scientists observed the behavior of fluorescently tagged DNA strands placed in water that contained no proteins or other material that could interfere with the experiment. Strands with identical nucleotide sequences were about twice as likely to gather together as DNA strands with different sequences. No one knows how individual DNA strands could possibly be communicating in this way, yet somehow they do.

Zephir said...

Winner of the Nobel Prize for medicine in 2008, Luc Montagnier is claiming that DNA can send "electromagnetic imprints" of it self into distant cells and fluids which can then be used by enzymes to create copies of the original DNA. This would be equivalent to quantum teleportation (NS article)

Zephir said...

>choose carbon nanotubes because they are an analogue of the conditions water faces when passing through living systems, through ion channels in cell membranes

Just another indicia for anomalous quantum memory effects, affecting the homoeopathic properties of water in complex biological systems, although they're remain undetectable in the bulk state of the test tube - which is why these effects are refused obstinately.

>It turns out that the protons in this nano-confined water at room temperature behave in an entirely different way to those in bulk water. Protons are known to be sensitive to the electronic fields around them. So when these fields form into unusual electronic networks, it's no surprise the protons behave differently...

This brings me the article of Deriagyn & col. about water from capillaries which has been refused as a pseudoscience before thirty years. Just another example of peer-review failure - the referee will refuse all phenomena, until they cannot imagine all possible reasons together (which is highly improbable at the case of experts, specialized to close area of their specialization).

http://tinyurl.com/4wk8tg3 http://tinyurl.com/4q8nlwu

The typical example of such expert bias is the dense aether concept, the emergent behavior of which is composed from composite action of many particles at the same moment. The experts are usually completelly blind to such behavior, after then, because there's no single causual line of reasoning, which such formally thinking experts are experienced with. For further reading: "Why experts are usually wrong"(http://tinyurl.com/36owhx2) by David H. Freeman.

Zephir said...

"Quantum Water" Discovered in Carbon Nanotubes

This is just another indicia for anomalous quantum memory effects, affecting the homoeopathic properties of water in complex biological systems, although they're remain undetectable in the bulk state of the test tube - which is why these effects are refused obstinately.

>It turns out that the protons in this nano-confined water at room temperature behave in an entirely different way to those in bulk water. Protons are known to be sensitive to the electronic fields around them. So when these fields form into unusual electronic networks, it's no surprise the protons behave differently...

This brings me the article of Deriagyn & col. about water from capillaries which has been refused as a pseudoscience before thirty years. Just another example of peer-review failure - the referee will refuse all phenomena, until they cannot imagine all possible reasons together (which is highly improbable at the case of experts, specialized to close area of their specialization).

http://tinyurl.com/4wk8tg3 http://tinyurl.com/4q8nlwu

The typical example of such expert bias is the dense aether concept, the emergent behavior of which is composed from composite action of many particles at the same moment. The experts are usually completelly blind to such behavior, after then, because there's no single causual line of reasoning, which such formally thinking experts are experienced with. For further reading: "Why experts are usually wrong"(http://tinyurl.com/36owhx2) by David H. Freeman.

Zephir said...

Plasma discharge not only can sterilize water, but make it antimicrobial able to kill bacteria for as long as a week after treatment. Whereas the plasma sterilization is rather nonsense with respect to its economy, the action of plasma to water is completely different stuff. It could be closely related to polarization of water clusters, "dead" and "live" water and similar stuffs, which are generally considered a "pseudoscience" if not "mythology" - but which they were never seriously checked in the same way, like the cold fusion and many other findings. It could be the very first accepted evidence for so-called memory of water, cluster medicine and homeopathy.

Zephir said...

Anomalous Nuclear Quantum Effects in Ice. The volume of water (H2O) ice depends on the quantum “zero-point” motion of the H and O atoms in an opposite way from "normal" materials. Crystals shrink as they are cooled, but because of “zero-point” motion, shrinking stops before reaching temperatures of absolute zero. Less massive atoms are more “quantum,” with more zero-point energy. Lighter nuclei need more room to move than heavier nuclei, which translates into larger crystals. The opposite occurs with ice. D2O (deuterated or heavy water) occupies more volume than H2O molecules, a difference that increases with temperature.

Zephir said...

By prof. G. Pollack water contains oriented dipole structure even in contact with air and polar surface, which maintains its geometry a long time after such a surface is removed. It could provide a physical basis for homeopathy and cluster medicine. We should realize, due the absorption of organic molecules to the surfaces of vessels we cannot never achieve the infinite dilution, as the homeopath propose. But these surface phenomena are killed with electrolytes and the repeated dilution helps to remove them.

Zephir said...

At least one paper argues that Widom and Larsen made some serious errors in their calculations that thoroughly undermine their theory

Zephir said...

Supercooled and glassy water exhibits memory effects.

Zephir said...

O:H-O Bond Anomalous Relaxation Resolving Mpemba Paradox

Zephir said...

I explained it here many times: the water expands by one tenth of volume during freezing, because inside the liquid water the molecules are arranged into small tightly packed clusters of roughly icosahedral symmetry. How large the hydrostatic pressure is inside of these clusters? Well, roughly the same pressure, like it would be required for compression of water by one tenth of volume - we are talking about millions of psi here.
Now it's evident, why the water molecule bonds are much more permanent inside of these clusters, than inside of molecules outside of them. It's because the water molecules are angled, so if you squeeze them, they will change into compact mutually locked system in similar way, like the bunch of small objects of irregular shape (you know, a paper bag full of nails of paper clips keeps its shape even when the paper is carefully removed). How the water molecule squeezed inside of cluster could release its bonds? Well, only when it will get out of it - which is possible only, when another molecule will take its place somewhere else inside of cluster.
Despite the water molecules collide and exchange their positions fast, due the relatively large size of clusters (about 248 molecule per cluster or so) their replacement at the cluster level is much slower. And this is not all. Due the compact character of cluster the water molecules there do behave like the jelly or plasticine, so that the cluster retains its charge distribution geometry even when some molecule will leave it. And when new individual molecule will take its place, it will be forced to adjust itself to existing geometry of cluster, not vice-versa, because molecules inside of cluster are many and they will "outvote" the "opinion" of single new molecule. As the result, the charge distribution at short scale are much more stable inside of cold water, than someone could guess from solely random fluid model.
Now, the crystals of water may form only when the water molecules will occupy some particular conformation, which is incompatible with ice. The hot water will destroy this configuration inside of most of clusters, so if we cool it fast, we get a system, which is more flexible and prone to crystallization, which explains the Mpemba effect. With longer standing the water molecules inside of cluster will get oriented into liquid crystal domains, which aren't conform with ice, but with molecules adsorbed on the walls. This arrangement can be accelerated with shaking, which brings the physical basis into explanation of "cluster" medicine, homeopathy and its "dynamization".

Zephir said...

We should realize another point here: the amount of molecules adsorbed on the walls of vessel doesn't depend on the concentration of molecules inside of bulk phase very much bellow some threshold concentration. So when we shake water in contact with the walls covered with adsorbed monolayer of molecules, the water cluster will still get the charge conformation according to these molecules, and nothing will force them to change this configuration during prolonged standing in contact with these vessels. Whole the bulk of fluid will get its electron conformation of molecular orbitals according few molecules adsorbed at the walls. The strongly hydrated sugar molecules used in homeopathy could promote this behavior, as they're very flexible and the serve as a glue of hydrogen bonds across clusters.
The another point is, that the biological activity of many enzymes does depend on the geometry of charge conformation in their vicinity (the famous "key and lock" mechanism). But the molecules of enzyme don't care, if they're shaped with real organic molecules (which are hydrated and surrounded with thick coat of water molecules anyway inside of solution) or just with water molecules alone assembled inside of water clusters. When they will get oriented with it, they will just work in the same way, like in contact with real organic molecules.
The final point there is, the metabolic activity of many organic molecules differs in concentrated solutions differs from their behavior in extreme diluted state. It's because the high concentration of electrolytes (including the ionized organic molecules itself) decrease the charge propagating across clusters at large distance, which may lead into quite different metabolic activity of certain enzymes, than at their diluted state. We are talking abouthormone disruptor toxicology here. And the homeopatic remedia solutions often tend to be very pure and free of electrolytes.
So that wen multiple factors combine, then even nearly pure water could exhibit the significant metabolic activity miraculously and it can "remember" it even during prolonged standing.

Zephir said...

They found that the typical target had so many electrons ripped away (26 in total) that the nickel atom was left with just two electrons (like helium)...The plasma densities, pressures, and temperatures were also close to those achieved in fusion experiments, which is several orders of magnitude better
There is an important hidden message in this article regarding the (possible mechanism of) cold fusion. It takes so much of energy for full removal of all electrons from nickel nuclei, that the energy exerted is comparable to the energy required for their fusion. And this is just the aspect, in which the hot fusion differs from this cold one.
The hot fusion is generally done with lightweight atoms (like the protium, deuterium or tritium), which just contain one electron around atoms. It's not so difficult to separate such a lone electron from atom nuclei, so we can consider the fusion of free atom nuclei without problem. And under such a situation the height of activation energy, i.e. the height of Coulomb barrier becomes ridiculously large, because of repulsive forces between remaining bare protons. Any spontaneous fusion of such "naked" atom nuclei is indeed very difficult and improbable, after then...
But the fusion at nickel nuclei is completely different beast. The protons inside of atom nuclei are shielded with electrons in the same way, like inside of hydrogen atom - but these electrons cannot be removed so easily. With respect to this, the Coulomb barrier is decreased significantly, because the residual electrons represent the shielding of the repulsive force of protons. The fusion of hydrogen with nickel runs so well partially because the nickel nuclei can get never fully "naked" during this.
Of course, there are another at least three or four additional helping factors in the game, but I don't want to complicate this stuff for you in this moment.

Zephir said...

Water doesn't always go with the flow: experiments demonstrate that even simple fluids can spring back when deformed, if you push them fast enough...

Zephir said...

In a sort of biological "spooky action at a distance," water in a cell slows down in the tightest confines between proteins and develops the ability to affect other proteins much farther away (article)

Zephir said...

MIT Associate Prof. Peter Hagelstein on Fleischmann and Pons experiment, condensed matter physics, and the laws of conservation of energy in momentum