- consequence of limited light speed spreading through expanding space-time
- surface tension effect of bell curve shaped gravity field
- application of mass-energy equivalence to Einstein field equation
- result of variable surface/volume ratio to energy spreading by principle of least action
We can even find a direct analogy of this deceleration in our "pocket model" of observable Universe at water surface. From local perspective of every observer, whose size is evolutionary adjusted to wavelength of capillary waves (human distance scale) such surface is covered mostly by transversal waves, where the energy spreads in maximal speed from his insintric perspective, so he can interact with largest space-time possible (the speed of transversal waves is minimal from exsintric perspective, instead).
But the particle character of water environment manifests by dispersion of surface waves by tiny density fluctuations of underwater, which results into gradual change of transversal character of capillary waves into longitudinal one (i.e. into gravity waves). This dispersion decreases the speed of waves from exsintric perspective, which manifests like omni directional Universe expansion from insintric perspective or like subtle deceleration, which effectively freezes the spreading of surface waves, which can be interpreted like spreading of these waves in environment of gradually increasing density. We can observe this effect easily by splash ripples, formed by capillary waves. On the example bellow such waves are formed by bursting of bubbles at water surface, which can be interpreted like radiative decay of unstable particle in vacuum into gamma photons. By this interpretation dark matter effects, like Pioneer anomaly are related closely to the Universe expansion: for example the anomalous deceleration of Pioneer spacecraft (0.87 ± 0.13 nm/s2) is equal to product of Hubble constant and speed of light (a = Hc), which agrees well (±10% error) with value observed.
From this perspective every object is surrounded by virtual massive field which originates from massive field of virtual photons, i.e. the field of density fluctuations, which are manifesting in GWs formed by gravitons expanded by inflation and which is forming vacuum foam - and in this context it's quite natural and easily predictable effect following from AWT directly. Just the immense density of vacuum and common disbelief in Aether concept has caused, the effect of background field dispersion wasn't linked to dark matter observations and Pioneer anomaly before many years. Here's still plenty of room "at the bottom" of basic human understanding. Note that in this context the further search for GWs has no meaning, because we have observed them already like background noise of GWs detectors and their scope is limited by Casimir force scope in the same way, like scope of extradimensions and Lorentz symmetry violation at low scale.
As J.C. Cranwell (archive) pointed out, prof. Stephen Hawking has blundered by his own image... This picture comes from his book "A briefer history of time" at page 29 and it illustrates the energy wave spreading in particle environment. It's easy to see the waves getting further apart from each other as time increase, while Hawking is still claiming, the Lorentz invariance is "difficult to reconcile" with Newton theory. Of course it is, because it leads not only into Lorentz invariance, but into dark matter and expanding universe observations. This example just illustrates, how everyone sees, what he wants to see and Hawking the physmatic sees waves of constant wavelength in picture, which illustrates exactly the opposite.
Albert Einstein "You do not really understand something unless you can explain it to your grandmother."